- Two streams of genes found in Eurasia.
- Genomes were tested using the ADMIXTURE and modeling methods.
- New gene study on the genomics of the Viking world.
There is an intriguing new analysis of the findings pertaining to the genome-wide markers in the current Eurasian population. Apparently, there are two streams of genes.
1) Mongoloid from Central Asia to the territories of Turkey and Syria. (Mongoloid is a grouping of various people indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, Polynesia and the Americas. It is one of the traditional three races first introduced in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History)
2) Uralid from Eastern Siberia to the Estonian border. (West Sibirid subtype, especially common in the basin of the Ob River among Khanty and Mansi people. Sometimes in Altai and Khakassia. Due to the harsh Siberian climate, this type was never very numerous. Today, the indigenous groups are largely outnumbered by Russians)
A majority of the archeological cultures have mongoloid and Uralid components, according to the results of ancient DNA researched in 2017-2018 by Damgaard, 2018; Krzewinska, 2018; Unterlander, 2017, published in Järve, 2019. The authors studied genetic markers of the Cimmerian, Scythian, Sarmatian, Saki and Chernyakhov archeological cultures in the Eurasian zones. The Cimmerians were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1,000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
The Scythians, also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a nomadic people who dominated the Pontic steppe from about the 7th century BC up until the 3rd century BC.
Saki is an area in the Crimean peninsula.
The Chernyakhov culture, or Sântana de Mureș culture is an archaeological culture that flourished between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD in a wide area of Eastern Europe, specifically in what is now Ukraine, Romania, Moldova and parts of Belarus. The culture is thought to be the result of a multiethnic cultural mix of the Sarmatian, Slavic, Gothic, and Geto-Dacian (including Romanised Daco-Romans) populations of the area.
Genomes were tested using the ADMIXTURE and modeling methods. Genetic admixture is the presence of DNA in an individual of a distantly-related population or species, as a result of interbreeding between populations or species who have been reproductively isolated and genetically differentiated. Admixture results in the introduction of new genetic lineages into a population. Admixture mapping is a method of gene mapping that uses a population of mixed ancestry (an admixed population) to find the genetic loci that contribute to differences in diseases or other phenotypes found between the different ancestral populations.
The diagram above shows the main components of the genome-wide markers and shows individual points characterizing remains of the archeological cultures. A horizontal axis shows the West to East direction and the vertical axis shows South to North direction.
The analysis means some regions of Russia, including parts of China carry two main streams of genes, in comparison to previous findings.
Additionally, the new gene study Population Genomics of the Viking World was able to identify Viking Ethnicity. The Viking era is from 790-1066 AD and their formation takes place in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. During this time, the Vikings reached most of western Eurasia, Greenland, and North America, and left a cultural legacy that persists up to today. Moreover, vikings contributed to Europe’s genetic profile. Russian historians believe the Vikings contributed to the formation of Russia and some of its population on the European side. The study concludes that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial foreign engagement: distinct Viking populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, while Scandinavia also experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.