- One of the missions is to build a permanent base at the South pole of Selene.
- One of the obstacles for people to stay on these celestial bodies is the radiation from the cosmic rays.
- To achieve maximum protection, you must use terrain features, including craters and caves.
The colonization of other planets is becoming a focus of the space agendas around the globe. In April, NASA released a new report outlining the development of selenium (on the moon), which turns it into a springboard for the preparation of the future Martian expeditions.
One of the missions is to build a permanent base at the South pole of Selene (possibly in the crater Shackleton). Experts expect that it can accommodate four people. The first crew will probably spend a week there. Gradually, the length of stay will be extended. Lunar expeditions are planned to be launched annually.
Recently, Russia received a new patent pertaining the autonomous system that is capable of converting thermal energy in to electrical energy, including in the conditions of a lunar base. Additionally, a sensational project begun last year consists of a moon base with artificial gravitation, allowing future human residents not only to live on the Moon, but even give birth without harm to their health. The moon base will contain a centrifuge, which will allow an earth-like level of gravity.
However, one of the obstacles for people to stay on these celestial bodies is the radiation from the cosmic rays. It will not be possible to build objects for human habitation on the surface of the moon or Mars, because such structures will not protect against radiation.
People can be saved from the harmful radiation only at the expense of penetration structures under the surface. Interestingly, a Russian children’s book from the last century, Dunno on the Moon (Neznaika na lune) actually depicts an underground city on the moon that was created by the humans from Earth. The underground part is also very specific.
According to Russian physicists, in order to be protected on the Moon and Mars from the galactic cosmic rays, the underground depth has to be over 27 inches. If the depth is less, the dose of radiation will be more. There were multiple studies done pertaining to galactic cosmic ray exposure to the astronauts.
The conclusions revealed that the exposure causes cancer, neurological impact, and an acute radiation syndrome. The CDC definition of ARS (acute radiation syndrome) is an acute illness caused by irradiation of the entire body (or most of the body) by a high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time.
That is why, during the Chernobyl tragedy of 1986, the first responders died horrible deaths afterward, including skin rolling off the body. Still, Russian physicists are working on a model that includes an optimal depth for the housing of residential and scientific buildings on the Moon and Mars at 3.2 feet. However, to achieve maximum protection, you must use terrain features, including craters and caves.
The design also includes oxygen-filled domes on Mars. The people living in such domes will be able to grow plants in greenhouses that are made of glass with reflectors to provide sufficient light to root crops. Furthermore, Russian scientists plan to create a suitable soil. It will have a mixture of rocks, salts, water, and organic waste, and biodegradable microorganisms are necessary.
The colonization of other planets by humans seem to be developing into concrete plans. The plans are ambitious. Thus far, all of such designs and projects are in theory. Whether they will be able to become a reality remains to be seen. It is clear the space race is on.