- Electrons are very small in comparison to other parts of the atom.
- If the king graph turns out to be slightly curved, this may be a manifestation of new particles that go beyond the Standard model of elementary particle physics.
- It is interesting work and another exciting study in theoretical physics.
New work has been announced pertaining to physics under collaboration with Russian and German physicists, pertaining to the behavior of electrons in atoms with different isotopes of the same element. Electrons are negative charged particles of the atom. Together, all of the electrons of an atom create a negative charge that balances the positive charge of the protons in the atomic nucleus. Electrons are very small in comparison to other parts of the atom.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, and consequently in nucleon number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in each atom. Hence, when an electron in an atom moves from a high energy level to a lower one, it emits a photon of a strictly defined frequency. Physicists say that at this frequency there is a spectral line corresponding to this transition.
There are many energy levels in the atom, so there are many possible transitions and spectral lines. A photon is a particle of light which essentially is a packet of electromagnetic radiation. The energy of the photon depends on its frequency (how fast the electric field and magnetic field wiggle). The higher the frequency, the more energy the photon has. Isotopes are varieties of a single chemical element that differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Furthermore, the same spectral line has different frequencies for different isotopes. This effect is called isotopic shift. The isotopic shift is the shift in various forms of spectroscopy that occurs when one nuclear isotope is replaced by another. The difference in line frequency between two isotopes can be a tiny fraction of a percent of the frequency itself, but for modern technology this is quite a measurable value. Each pair of isotopes of this element and each of its spectral lines has its own isotopic shift. After selecting an element and a spectral line, you can create a table where one column contains a pair of isotopes, and the other column contains the isotopic shift of this line for it.
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According to Vladimir Yeroshkin of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, if the king graph turns out to be slightly curved, this may be a manifestation of new particles that go beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, abbreviated as SPbPU, is a major Russian technical university located in Saint Petersburg. Other former names included Peter the Great Polytechnic Institute and Kalinin Polytechnic Institute.]
The physicists calculated King’s diagram to the argon ions. Argon ions are then formed, and their amount is continually increased by collisions of free electrons with neutral Ar atoms up to an equilibrium situation where a steady-state plasma is formed. The scientists looked at ions with four, five, and six electrons. Such “atoms” are extremely convenient both for theoretical study and for experiments. The researchers found that deviations from the straight line ranged from 5 to 3 kilohertz. The hertz is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units and is defined as cycles per one second. It is named after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. It means it is thousands times more than previous theoretical calculations in comparable systems.
It is interesting work and another exciting study in theoretical physics.
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany
2Center for Advanced Studies, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg, Russia
3Technische Universität Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany
4Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
5Institut für Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany