Kev Tshawb Fawb: Cov Neeg Tshawb Fawb Lavxias Tau Tsim Cov Khoom Siv Ntse Tshiab Raws Li Nanotechnology

  • Cov khoom siv tshiab ntse tuaj yeem siv nrog DNA thiab RNA.
  • Nws yuav tso cai rau cov tshuaj kom zoo dua mus rau thaj chaw tsom, vim nws lub peev xwm muaj peev xwm ua tau raws li kev kuaj pom ntawm lub cev.
  • Nws muaj qhov tshwm sim nthawv ntawm caws rau hauv pob.

Cov khoom siv tshiab tau tsim tawm hauv Russia uas yuav tso cai rau cov tshuaj thauj mus rau cov kab mob cuam tshuam thiab yuav ua rau tib neeg ua cov kev kuaj DNA hauv tsev. Qhov kev paub daws teeb meem tau luam tawm nyob rau hauv ACS Cov Ntawv Tshaj Tawm muaj npe "Nanoparticle Beacons: Supersensitive Ntse Cov Khoom Siv nrog Rau / Off-Switchable Affinity to Biomedical Phiaj Xwm." Qhov kev tshawb pom tau coj los ntawm Maxim Nikitin los ntawm Moscow lub koom haum ntawm Physics, thiab thev naus laus zis (MIPT), paub cov ntaub ntawv tsis raws cai raws li PhysTech, Lavxias teb sab tsev kawm keeb kwm tsim nyob rau hauv Soviet Union. Nws npaj tshwj xeeb hauv kev theoretical thiab siv physics, thov lej thiab lwm yam kev qhuab qhia. MIP paub txog tshwj xeeb ntawm MIPT txoj kev kawm.

Nanoparticle yog qhov me me ntawm 1 thiab 100 nanometers hauv qhov loj me nrog ib puag ncig interfacial txheej. Cov txheej txheej interfacial yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov teeb meem nanoscale, hais txog kev cuam tshuam rau txhua yam ntawm nws lub zog. Cov txheej txheej interfacial feem ntau muaj xws li ions, inorganic thiab organic molecules.

Nanoparticle Daim Duab Duab: splicebio.com

Nanotechnology raws lub hom phiaj tshuaj yuav cia qis dua qhov xav tau ntawm cov tshuaj thiab kom nce lawv qhov kev qhia kho mob thiab cov ntawv qhia kev nyab xeeb. Nws yog qhov ua tau rau kev nplua nuj nanoparticles lossis nanocapsules nrog cov khoom sib txawv raws li kev siv tshuaj yeeb dej caw thiab tso tawm.

Cov paub daws teeb lub xeev tias cov ntaub ntawv ntse uas tuaj yeem hloov nyob rau ntau lub xeev sib txawv raws li kev siv tshuaj lom neeg muaj qhov xav tau nyob hauv biomedicine, qhov tshwj xeeb uas tau teb rau biomarkers yog qhov tseem ceeb rau kev paub tseeb thiab kev kho mob. Cov xaiv zoo tshaj ntawm cov tshuaj xa mus rau cov hlwb ua haujlwm tsis zoo tuaj yeem ua tiav nrog cov nanoagents uas nyob twj ywm "inert" kom txog thaum "ua kom" los ntawm cov yam ntxwv ntawm microenvironment cues.

Li no, kev xa cov tshuaj tshwj xeeb tsuas yog rau cov qe cuam tshuam yog txoj kev xav tau ntau dua thiab muaj kev nyab xeeb dua rau cov neeg mob. Txij li, piv txwv li, nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm kev kho mob cancer thiab kev siv tshuaj kho mob, ntau ntau lub sijhawm ntawm cov tshuaj kho cov tshuaj tsis yog tsuas yog rhuav tshem cov hlwb cuam tshuam tab sis kuj noj qab nyob zoo. Yog li, cov kev mob tshwm sim thiab kev cuam tshuam lub sij hawm ntev tseem nyob siab rau cov neeg mob. Txawm li cas los xij, nws tau paub rau qee lub sijhawm uas kev sim tuaj yeem ua kom paub qhov txawv hlwb zoo ntawm qhov cuam tshuam.

Cov pab pawg tshawb fawb tau piav qhia txog lawv cov haujlwm hauv layman cov lus raws li cov piv txwv tias cov tshuaj tau hais kom xa mus rau hauv tsev tab sis tsis tau hais tshwj xeeb hauv chav tsev uas kev xa khoom yuav tsum muaj nyob qhov twg. Cov pab pawg tau ua haujlwm ntawm cov haujlwm zoo sib xws txij li xyoo 2014. Ib qho teeb meem loj tshaj plaws hauv kev tsim cov ntaub ntawv ntse yog qhov tsis txaus ntseeg uas tsis muaj qhov rhiab txaus. Tus sau phau ntawv thov hais tias nanoparticles muaj peev xwm tsim cov kev tshawb xyuas los ntawm cov ntsiab lus tsis yog nyob ntawm biochemical kev tsis haum.

Ib cov tshuaj tiv thaiv biochemical yog kev hloov ntawm ib lub lolus mus rau ib lub qauv txawv hauv ib ntawm tes. Cov tshuaj lom biochemical yog sib kho los ntawm cov enzymes, uas yog lom catalysts uas tuaj yeem hloov tus nqi thiab qhov tshwj xeeb ntawm kev fab tshuaj hauv lub hlwb.

Cov kws tshawb fawb Lavxias tau tuaj yeem tsim cov khoom siv tshiab ntse, uas yog nkag siab nrog cov cim DNA. Nws tuaj yeem xaus, nws yog qhov khoom siv ntxim nyiam tshaj plaws rau hnub tim hauv lub ntiaj teb ua lag luam. Qhov laj thawj tseem ceeb rau qhov kev tawg no yog lawv tau pom qhov txawv txav ntawm cov DNA ntawm cov lwg me me nyob ntawm nanoparticles. Hauv qhov xwm txheej no DNA strand tau txuas rau sab saum toj ntawm nanoparticles.

Hauv lub nucleus ntawm txhua lub cell, cov DNA molecule tau ntim rau hauv cov xov zoo li cov qauv hu ua chromosomesCov. Txhua lub chromosome tau los ntawm DNA nruj nreem coiled ntau zaus nyob ib puag ncig cov protein hu ua histones uas txhawb nws cov qauv. Cov kws tshawb fawb txuas lub receptor nyob rau sab nraud, uas muaj peev xwm paub cov cim rau ntawm ntawm tes ntoCov. Tus xovtooj ntawm lub ntsej muag yog qhov chaw pib rau ntau cov haujlwm tseem ceeb ntawm biochemical ntawm cov cell thiab rau kev sib cuam tshuam ntawm cov hlwb nrog ib leeg thiab nrog lawv ib puag ncig.

Cov Duab los ntawm: compound chem

Thaum lub sijhawm kuaj, lub receptor tsis khi rau hom phiaj. Qhov kev xav tau ua tau kom yog DNA plooj txuas rau saum npoo ntawm nanoparticle thiab curls ua pob. Nws yog plausible tias thaum ntawd qhov kawg ntawm cov xov receptor tsis muaj kev sib cuag nrog lub hom phiaj. Ib qho tseem ceeb dua, cov khoom siv tshiab kuj tseem ua haujlwm nrog Ribonucleic acid (RNA), polymeric molecule tseem ceeb hauv ntau lub luag haujlwm lom neeg hauv coding, decoding, kev cai thiab kev qhia tawm ntawm cov noob.

RNA thiab DNA yog nucleic acids, thiab, nrog rau lipids, cov nqaijrog thiab carbohydrates, muab plaub loj macromolecules tseem ceeb rau txhua cov ntaub ntawv ntawm lub neej. Cov khoom tshiab tsis muaj qhov sib luag hauv nws lub peev xwm los paub luv luv ntawm cov khoom siv nucleic acids (6-9 hauv paus). Lub hauv paus adenine, guanine, thiab cytosine pom muaj nyob rau hauv ob qho tib si DNA thiab RNA; thymine tsuas yog pom hauv DNA, thiab uracil tsuas yog pom hauv RNA. Cov hauv paus hauv paus feem ntau yog cov tsiaj ntawv A, G, C, T, thiab U, raws li. Rau qhov yooj yim ib tus ntawv tseem tseem siv thaum muaj cov theem ntev ntawm nucleotides yog sau tawm.

Duab los ntawm: byjus

DNA thiab RNA tawg tsam tuaj yeem siv los ua cov cim ntawm lub hlwb cuam tshuam los ntawm tus kab mob. Tsis tas li ntawd, txoj kev txhim kho yuav txhim kho cov thev naus laus zis ntawm DNA thiab RNA tsom rau kev kho mob thiab kev tshawb fawb lub hom phiaj.

Kev ua haujlwm tshiab zoo siab thiab tsom lub hom phiaj xa mus siv tshuaj nanotechnology muab txoj hauv kev zoo tshaj plaws ntawm kev mob rov qab los ntawm qog nqaij hlav thiab yuav txo qis kev phiv los ntawm cov tshuaj xa mus. Nws tseem yog theem tseem ceeb rau txoj kev nce siab ntawm qhov hloov pauv ntawm cov khoom tshiab ntse thiab cov cib fim tshiab nws yuav coj mus rau zej zog kev kho mob.

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Xa Koj Qhov Ntawm No

Christina Kitova

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