- Hypothetically speaking the universe is not expanding in all directions at the same rate.
- The speed of expansion could depend on the direction.
- Currently, it is assumed that the speed at which a galaxy is moving away from us is equal to the distance to it multiplied by the Hubble Constant.
There is a conundrum pertaining to the possibility of universes expanding in all directions at the same rate. According to the Hubble Law, the clusters of galaxies are further away than they should be. Therefore, hypothetically speaking, the universe is not expanding in all directions at the same rate. Edwin Hubble observed the relation between distance and recession velocity of galaxies in 1929.
The Hubble Law allowed the possibility of the universe expanding. It also changed how the universe is viewed and understood. It inaugurated the field of observational cosmology that has uncovered an amazingly vast universe that has been expanding and evolving for 14 billion years and contains dark matter, dark energy, and billions of galaxies. Dark matter continues to be more of a hypothesis.
The new paper “Probing cosmic isotropy with a new X-ray galaxy cluster sample through the LX–T scaling relation” could possibly change how the universe is viewed, including a change in calculations that are used at this time.
Since the Hubble Law, physicists accepted that universe expansion continues at the same rate. If this exceptional new work proves to be true, it will forever change such views. It would also have to be widely accepted that the speed of expansion depends on the direction.
Currently it is assumed that the speed at which a galaxy is moving away from us is equal to the distance to it multiplied by the Hubble constant. The Hubble constant is a unit that describes how fast the universe is expanding at different distances from a particular point in space. It is one of the keystones in our understanding of the universe’s evolution and researchers are mired in a debate over its true value. Nevertheless, the Hubble law does not depend on the direction to the galaxy. However, physicists from the United States and Western Europe have been questioning the measurement of the speed and distances of more than 800 galaxy clusters.
The speed of the cosmological escape can be determined by the red shift.
How the distance of the object is calculated by analyzing observations of the X-ray telescopes Chandra and XMM-Newton. The Chandra X-ray Observatory, previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, is a Flagship-class space telescope launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
XMM-Newton, also known as the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission, is an X-ray space observatory launched by the European Space Agency in December 1999 on an Ariane 5 rocket. It is the second cornerstone mission of ESA’s Horizon 2000 program. For 313 galaxy clusters, the researchers processed observational data, and the rest of the information was taken from existing work. Scientists determined the temperature of the hot gas that emits x-rays, and calculated the intensity of radiation from it. They then compared it to the observed stream of x-rays from these galaxy clusters. This is how astronomers calculated the distance to the observed clusters.
It is also plausible that X-ray radiation, and the intensity of which we have measured, is weakened on the way from the clusters of galaxies to the Earth. In this work physicists believe it is possible that there are undetected gas or dust clouds inside or outside the Milky Way.
The results of the research show the discrepancy between the measurements and the theory, not only in x-rays, but also at other wavelengths. It is possible that the velocity measured by the redshift has more than just a cosmological origin. Hence, it is possible that clusters of galaxies would show anomalies from streams rushing through space, and their speed is added to the rate of expansion of the Universe.
This work could change forever the calculations of the properties of the local universe that are being utilized.
There is still additional data that is needed and it is expected to be gathered from Spektr-RG pertaining to the large clusters. Spektr-RG is a Russian–German high-energy astrophysics space observatory which was launched on July 13, 2019. It follows on from the Spektr-R satellite telescope launched in 2011.
The work is very interesting and it could be this century’s biggest discoveries, if proven true.