Nobel Prize in Physics 2019 – First Discovery of Planet Orbiting Solar-type Star Outside Our Solar System

  • This year is also the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev periodic table.
  • The legend claims Dmitry Mendeleev created his periodic table in one day in 1869.
  • It's worth pointing out that German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner noticed the groups of elements in 1817.

Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics. The 2019 Nobel Prize in physics depends on the atomic physics.

The 2019 Nobel Prize is split between Michel Mayor (University Geneva), Didier Queloz (University of Geneva, University of Cambridge) and James Peebles ( Princeton University) for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star, which is based on the radial velocity method. Also known as Doppler spectroscopy, it is the most effective method for locating extrasolar planets with existing technology.

Source: Universe Today

This year is also the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev periodic table. Due to the process used by the winners of the Physics Nobel prize, the periodic table  played a pivotal role and continues to make a great world impact. In order to measure the radial-velocity, there is a need to know the frequency of the light that was emitted by the star. Also it is needed to know the frequency of the light that is detected. Every atom in the Mendeleev periodic table absorbs and emits light at a discrete set of frequencies, which correspond the difference in energy as electrons move between quantum states.

The legend claims Dmitry Mendeleev created his periodic table in one day in 1869. However, it is known Mendeleev spent years grouping chemical elements. Mendeleev was a Russian chemist and inventor and formulated the Periodic Law stating that the physical and chemical properties of the elements recur in a systematic and predictable way when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers.

Dmitry Mendeleev.

Mendleev was born in Siberia in 1834 and was the 17th child.  He graduated from Saint Petesburg Teachers College. He was a school math teacher, while working on his Masters degree.  Thereafter, he worked in the top chemistry labs across Europe. Upon his return to Russia he obtained his Ph.D. in 1865 and became a professor at St. Petersburg University.

Mendeleev wrote his own educational material. During the writing of the book, he wrote 63 elements on separate flash cards. He used them as a chemical pyramid, sorting the cards in a vertical line by atomic mass from the lowest to highest– the elements with similar properties in horizontal rows.  He added the table to his book. Also some of the spaces were left blank in the chart, to have space for the new elements to be discovered. During his life three additional elements were discovered and added to the chart (gallium, scandium, germanium). Mendeleev predicted these elements and correctly described their properties.

Chemists in the 1890s accepted Mendeleev table.

Original Mendeleev Periodic Table.

In 1900 Sir William Ramsey credited the Mendeelev table as having the biggest impact in the field of chemistry. Sir Ramsay was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904, “in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air,” along with his collaborator, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for their discovery of argon.

By the time of Mendeleev’s passing in 1907, scientists knew that atoms had multiple components such as electrons that had a negative charge.

It’s worth pointing out that German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner noticed the groups of elements in 1817. Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements and inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Döbereiner’s lamp. He became a professor of chemistry and pharmacy at the University of Jena.  Döbereiner noticed three elements groupings (Triads) showed specific connections. For example, Bromine has an atomic mass between the masses of chlorine and iodine, yet all three elements showed similar chemical reactions.

In 1869, there were 69 known elements, which were used to create the first table. As of 2019, “the year of the periodic table,” there are 118.

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Christina Kitova

I spent most of my professional life in finance, insurance risk management litigation.

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