Portland cement is the basic ingredient used in concrete and is manufactured by heating and grinding a mixture of limestone and clay or shale. It is made up of four main compounds, namely, tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, and tetra-calcium aluminoferrite.
White cement is a hydraulic binder made with China clay and chalk or limestone in a high-temperature process. It is characterized by a fine texture and distinct white color which can depend upon the manufacturing process and the quality of raw materials (manganese oxide and iron oxide) used in its production. White cement forms a paste when combined with water which then sets and hardens. It is highly durable, requires low maintenance and provides an aesthetic look, owing to which white cement is widely used in the construction industry across the globe.
The combustion of coal in coal-fired boilers produces unburned residues. These residues include bottom ash, also known as clinker ash, which exists at the bottom of the boiler. Bottom ash generally accounts for less than the quarter of the total ash production. This ash must be collected and disposed of owing to adverse environmental and health concerns.
Increasing demand for process automation across industries is primarily fueling the adoption of cement and mortar testing equipment in construction industry. Poised to see just-under 5% yearly growth in the revenue, the global market for cement and mortar testing equipment is likely to cross the value of $550 million in 2019.